Exim cannot send mail to external email address

Hello fellow exim users,

I have exim 4.71 installed on Freebsd 8.0 with mysql support. I can send
mail locally using my mysql users. i get the following error when i try
sending mail from my box to another email address:

2010-05-20 18:28:23 1OFATk-0000Kf-Bv <= me@update.ug.edu.gh
H=update.ug.edu.gh [41.204.63.199] P=smtp S=230
2010-05-20 18:28:23 1OFATk-0000Kf-Bv ** me@ug.edu.gh: Unrouteable address
2010-05-20 18:28:23 1OFATn-0000Kh-Om <= <> R=1OFATk-0000Kf-Bv U=mailnull
P=local S=1063
2010-05-20 18:28:23 1OFATk-0000Kf-Bv Completed2010-05-20 18:28:23 1OFATn-0000Kh-Om => me me@update.ug.edu.gh
R=mysql_user T=mysql_delivery
2010-05-20 18:28:23 1OFATn-0000Kh-Om Completed

what have missed in /exim.conf :

$Cambridge: exim/exim-src/src/configure.default,v 1.1 2004/10/07

10:39:01 ph10 Exp $

###################################################################### #
Runtime configuration file for Exim #

This is a default configuration file which will operate correctly in

uncomplicated installations. Please see the manual for a complete list #
of all the runtime configuration options that can be included in a #
configuration file. There are many more than are mentioned here. The #
manual is in the file doc/spec.txt in the Exim distribution as a plain #
ASCII file. Other formats (PostScript, Texinfo, HTML, PDF) are available #
from the Exim ftp sites. The manual is also online at the Exim web sites.

This file is divided into several parts, all but the first of which are

headed by a line starting with the word “begin”. Only those parts that

are required need to be present. Blank lines, and lines starting with # #
are ignored.

########### IMPORTANT ########## IMPORTANT ########### IMPORTANT
########### #
# # Whenever you change Exim’s configuration file, you must
remember to # # HUP the Exim daemon, because it will not pick up the
new configuration # # until you do. However, any other Exim processes
that are started, for # # example, a process started by an MUA in order
to send a message, will # # see the new configuration as soon as it is
in place. # #
# # You do not need to HUP the daemon for
changes in auxiliary files that # # are referenced from this file. They
are read every time they are used. # #
# # It is usually a good idea to
test a new configuration for syntactic # # correctness before
installing it (for example, by running the command # # “exim -C
/config/file.new -bV”). # #
########### IMPORTANT ########## IMPORTANT ########### IMPORTANT

###################################################################### #
MAIN CONFIGURATION SETTINGS #
hide mysql_servers = localhost///

Specify your host’s canonical name here. This should normally be the

fully # qualified “official” name of your host. If this option is not set,
the # uname() function is called to obtain the name. In many cases this
does # the right thing and you need not set anything explicitly.

primary_hostname =

The next three settings create two lists of tables and one list of

hosts. # These lists are referred to later in this configuration using the
syntax # +local_tables, +relay_to_tables, and +relay_from_hosts,
respectively. They # are all colon-separated lists:

#tablelist local_tables = @
tablelist local_tables = @ :localhost : ${lookup mysql {SELECT table FROM
tables
WHERE table="${quote_mysql:${table}}" }}
tablelist relay_to_tables = ug.edu.gh
hostlist relay_from_hosts = 127.0.0.1 : 192.168.0.0/16 : 41.204.63.199 :
82.206.239.128/25

Most straightforward access control requirements can be obtained by

appropriate settings of the above options. In more complicated
situations, you

may need to modify the Access Control List (ACL) which appears later in

this

file.

The first setting specifies your local tables, for example:

tablelist local_tables = my.first.table : my.second.table

You can use “@” to mean “the name of the local host”, as in the default

setting above. This is the name that is specified by primary_hostname,

as specified above (or defaulted). If you do not want to do any local #
deliveries, remove the “@” from the setting above. If you want to accept
mail

addressed to your host’s literal IP address, for example, mail addressed

to # “user@[192.168.23.44]”, you can add “@[]” as an item in the local
tables # list. You also need to uncomment “allow_table_literals” below.
This is not # recommended for today’s Internet.

The second setting specifies tables for which your host is an incoming

relay.

If you are not doing any relaying, you should leave the list empty.

However,

if your host is an MX backup or gateway of some kind for some tables,

you # must set relay_to_tables to match those tables. For example:

tablelist relay_to_tables = *.myco.com : my.friend.org

This will allow any host to relay through your host to those tables.

See the section of the manual entitled “Control of relaying” for more #
information.

The third setting specifies hosts that can use your host as an outgoing

relay

to any other host on the Internet. Such a setting commonly refers to a

complete local network as well as the localhost. For example:
#hostlist relay_from_hosts = 127.0.0.1 : 192.168.0.0/16 : 82.206.239.244/32 #

The “/16” is a bit mask (CIDR notation), not a number of hosts. Note

that you

have to include 127.0.0.1 if you want to allow processes on your host to

send

SMTP mail by using the loopback address. A number of MUAs use this

method of

sending mail.

All three of these lists may contain many different kinds of item,

including

wildcarded names, regular expressions, and file lookups. See the

reference # manual for details. The lists above are used in the access
control list for # incoming messages. The name of this ACL is defined
here:

acl_smtp_rcpt = acl_check_rcpt
acl_smtp_data = acl_check_data
acl_not_smtp = acl_check_data

You should not change that setting until you understand how ACLs work.

Specify the table you want to be added to all unqualified addresses

here. An unqualified address is one that does not contain an “@” character

followed by a table. For example, “caesar@rome.example” is a fully

qualified

address, but the string “caesar” (i.e. just a login name) is an

unqualified # email address. Unqualified addresses are accepted only from
local callers by

default. See the recipient_unqualified_hosts option if you want to

permit # unqualified addresses from remote sources. If this option is not
set, the # primary_hostname value is used for qualification.

qualify_table =

If you want unqualified recipient addresses to be qualified with a

different

table to unqualified sender addresses, specify the recipient table here.

If this option is not set, the qualify_table value is used.

qualify_recipient =

The following line must be uncommented if you want Exim to recognize

addresses of the form “user@[10.11.12.13]” that is, with a “table literal”

(an IP address) instead of a named table. The RFCs still require this

form, # but it makes little sense to permit mail to be sent to specific
hosts by # their IP address in the modern Internet. This ancient format
has been used # by those seeking to abuse hosts by using them for unwanted
relaying. If you # really do want to support table literals, uncomment the
following line, and # see also the “table_literal” router below.

allow_table_literals

No deliveries will ever be run under the uids of these users (a colon-

separated list). An attempt to do so causes a panic error to be logged,
and # the delivery to be deferred. This is a paranoic safety catch. There
is an # even stronger safety catch in the form of the FIXED_NEVER_USERS
setting # in the configuration for building Exim. The list of users that
it specifies # is built into the binary, and cannot be changed. The option
below just adds # additional users to the list. The default for
FIXED_NEVER_USERS is “root”, # but just to be absolutely sure, the default
here is also “root”.

Note that the default setting means you cannot deliver mail addressed to

root

as if it were a normal user. This isn’t usually a problem, as most sites

have

an alias for root that redirects such mail to a human administrator.

never_users = root
#exim_group = mail
#exim_user = ematogo

The setting below causes Exim to do a reverse DNS lookup on all incoming

IP calls, in order to get the true host name. If you feel this is too

expensive, you can specify the networks for which a lookup is done, or #
remove the setting entirely.

host_lookup = *

The settings below, which are actually the same as the defaults in the

code, cause Exim to make RFC 1413 (ident) callbacks for all incoming SMTP

calls. You can limit the hosts to which these calls are made, and/or

change # the timeout that is used. If you set the timeout to zero, all RFC
1413 calls

are disabled. RFC 1413 calls are cheap and can provide useful

information # for tracing problem messages, but some hosts and firewalls
have problems # with them. This can result in a timeout instead of an
immediate refused # connection, leading to delays on starting up an SMTP
session.

rfc1413_hosts = *
rfc1413_query_timeout = 30s

By default, Exim expects all envelope addresses to be fully qualified,

that # is, they must contain both a local part and a table. If you want to
accept # unqualified addresses (just a local part) from certain hosts, you
can specify

these hosts by setting one or both of

sender_unqualified_hosts =

recipient_unqualified_hosts =

to control sender and recipient addresses, respectively. When this is

done, # unqualified addresses are qualified using the settings of
qualify_table # and/or qualify_recipient (see above).

If you want Exim to support the “percent hack” for certain tables,

uncomment the following line and provide a list of tables. The “percent #
hack” is the feature by which mail addressed to x%y@z (where z is one of #
the tables listed) is locally rerouted to x@y and sent on. If z is not one

of the “percent hack” tables, x%y is treated as an ordinary local part.

This

hack is rarely needed nowadays; you should not enable it unless you are

sure

that you really need it.

percent_hack_tables =

As well as setting this option you will also need to remove the test

for local parts containing % in the ACL definition below.

When Exim can neither deliver a message nor return it to sender, it

“freezes”

the delivery error message (aka “bounce message”). There are also other

circumstances in which messages get frozen. They will stay on the queue

for # ever unless one of the following options is set.

This option unfreezes frozen bounce messages after two days, tries

once more to deliver them, and ignores any delivery failures.

ignore_bounce_errors_after = 2d

This option cancels (removes) frozen messages that are older than a week.

timeout_frozen_after = 7d

###################################################################### #
ACL CONFIGURATION # #
Specifies access control lists for incoming SMTP mail #

#av_scanner = clamd:/var/run/clamav/clamd.sock
av_scanner = clamd:127.0.0.1 3310
begin acl
acl_check_data:
#deny message = This message contains \

a virus ($malware_name).

#    malware = *

warn spam = nobody

message = X-is-spam: over spam threshold

warn message = X-Spam_score: $spam_score\n\

#	  X-Spam_score_int: $spam_score_int\n\
	#  X-Spam_bar: $spam_bar\n\
	 # X-Spam_report: $spam_report

accept

This access control list is used for every RCPT command in an incoming

SMTP message. The tests are run in order until the address is either #
accepted or denied.

acl_check_rcpt:

Accept if the source is local SMTP (i.e. not over TCP/IP). We do this

by # testing for an empty sending host field.

accept hosts = :
# control = dkim_disable_verify

The following section of the ACL is concerned with local parts that

contain

@ or % or ! or / or | or dots in unusual places.

The characters other than dots are rarely found in genuine local

parts, but

are often tried by people looking to circumvent relaying restrictions.

Therefore, although they are valid in local parts, these rules lock

them # out, as a precaution.

Empty components (two dots in a row) are not valid in RFC 2822, but

Exim # allows them because they have been encountered. (Consider local
parts # constructed as “firstinitial.secondinitial.familyname” when
applied to # someone like me, who has no second initial.) However, a
local part
starting

with a dot or containing /…/ can cause trouble if it is used as part

of a

file name (e.g. for a mailing list). This is also true for local parts

that

contain slashes. A pipe symbol can also be troublesome if the local

part is

incorporated unthinkingly into a shell command line.

Two different rules are used. The first one is stricter, and is

applied to

messages that are addressed to one of the local tables handled by this

host. It blocks local parts that begin with a dot or contain @ % ! /

or |.

If you have local accounts that include these characters, you will

have to

modify this rule.

deny message = Restricted characters in address
tables = +local_tables
local_parts = ^[.] : ^.*[@%!/|]

The second rule applies to all other tables, and is less strict. This

allows your own users to send outgoing messages to sites that use

slashes # and vertical bars in their local parts. It blocks local parts
that begin # with a dot, slash, or vertical bar, but allows these
characters within
the

local part. However, the sequence /…/ is barred. The use of @ % and !

is # blocked, as before. The motivation here is to prevent your users
(or # your users’ viruses) from mounting certain kinds of attack on
remote
sites.

deny message = Restricted characters in address
tables = !+local_tables
local_parts = ^[./|] : ^.[@%!] : ^./\.\./

Accept mail to postmaster in any local table, regardless of the

source, # and without verifying the sender.

accept local_parts = postmaster
tables = +local_tables

Deny unless the sender address can be verified.

require verify = sender

There are no checks on DNS “black” lists because the tables that

contain # these lists are changing all the time. However, here are two
examples of # how you could get Exim to perform a DNS black list lookup
at this point. # The first one denies, while the second just warns.

deny message = rejected because $sender_host_address is in a

black list at $dnslist_table\n$dnslist_text

dnslists = black.list.example

warn message = X-Warning: $sender_host_address is in a black

list at $dnslist_table

log_message = found in $dnslist_table

dnslists = black.list.example

Accept if the address is in a local table, but only if the recipient

can # be verified. Otherwise deny. The “endpass” line is the border
between # passing on to the next ACL statement (if tests above it fail)
or denying # access (if tests below it fail).

accept tables = +local_tables
endpass
# verify = recipient

Accept if the address is in a table for which we are relaying, but again,

only if the recipient can be verified.

accept tables = +relay_to_tables
endpass
# verify = recipient

If control reaches this point, the table is neither in +local_tables

nor in +relay_to_tables.

Accept if the message comes from one of the hosts for which we are an

outgoing relay. Recipient verification is omitted here, because in

many # cases the clients are dumb MUAs that don’t cope well with SMTP
error # responses. If you are actually relaying out from MTAs, you
should
probably

add recipient verification here.

accept hosts = +relay_from_hosts

Accept if the message arrived over an authenticated connection, from

any host. Again, these messages are usually from MUAs, so recipient #
verification is omitted.

accept authenticated = *
control = submission
#control = dkim_disable_verify

Reaching the end of the ACL causes a “deny”, but we might as well give

an explicit message.

deny message = relay not permitted

###################################################################### #
ROUTERS CONFIGURATION # #
Specifies how addresses are handled #
###################################################################### #
THE ORDER IN WHICH THE ROUTERS ARE DEFINED IS IMPORTANT! # # An
address is passed to each router in turn until it is accepted. #

begin routers

This router routes to remote hosts over SMTP by explicit IP address,

when an email address is given in “table literal” form, for example, #
<user@[192.168.35.64]>. The RFCs require this facility. However, it is #
little-known these days, and has been exploited by evil people seeking #
to abuse SMTP relays. Consequently it is commented out in the default #
configuration. If you uncomment this router, you also need to uncomment #
allow_table_literals above, so that Exim can recognize the syntax of #
table literal addresses.

table_literal:

driver = ipliteral

tables = ! +local_tables

transport = remote_smtp

This router routes addresses that are not in local tables by doing a DNS

lookup on the table name. Any table that resolves to 0.0.0.0 or to a

loopback interface address (127.0.0.0/8) is treated as if it had no DNS #
entry. Note that 0.0.0.0 is the same as 0.0.0.0/32, which is commonly
treated

as the local host inside the network stack. It is not 0.0.0.0/0, the

default

route. If the DNS lookup fails, no further routers are tried because of

the no_more setting, and consequently the address is unrouteable.

dnslookup:
driver = dnslookup
tables = ! +local_tables
transport = remote_smtp
ignore_target_hosts = 0.0.0.0 : 127.0.0.0/8
no_more

mysql_sys_aliases:
driver = redirect
allow_fail
allow_defer
directory_transport = address_file
file_transport = address_file
data = ${lookup mysql{SELECT dest FROM aliases
WHERE email=’${local_part}@${table}’ AND
type=“system”}}

mysql_aliases:
driver = redirect
allow_fail
allow_defer
directory_transport = address_file
file_transport = address_file
data = ${lookup mysql{ SELECT dest FROM aliases
WHERE email=’${local_part}@${table}’ AND
type=“site”}}

The remaining routers handle addresses in the local table(s).

This router handles aliasing using a linearly searched alias file with

the # name /etc/aliases. When this configuration is installed
automatically, # the name gets inserted into this file from whatever is
set in Exim’s # build-time configuration. The default path is the
traditional /etc/aliases. # If you install this configuration by hand, you
need to specify the correct # path in the “data” setting below.

NB You must ensure that the alias file exists. It used to be the

case ##### NB that every Unix had that file, because it was the Sendmail
default. ##### NB These days, there are systems that don’t have it. Your
aliases ##### NB file should at least contain an alias for “postmaster”.

If any of your aliases expand to pipes or files, you will need to set

up a user and a group for these deliveries to run under. You can do # this
by uncommenting the “user” option below (changing the user name # as
appropriate) and adding a “group” option if necessary. Alternatively, you

can specify “user” on the transports that are used. Note that the

transports

listed below are the same as are used for .forward files; you might want

to set up different ones for pipe and file deliveries from aliases.

#system_aliases:

driver = redirect

allow_fail

allow_defer

data = ${lookup{$local_part}lsearch{/etc/aliases}}

user = exim

file_transport = address_file

pipe_transport = address_pipe

This router handles forwarding using traditional .forward files in

users’ # home directories. If you want it also to allow mail filtering
when a forward

file starts with the string “# Exim filter” or “# Sieve filter”,

uncomment # the “allow_filter” option.

If you want this router to treat local parts with suffixes introduced by

“-”

or “+” characters as if the suffixes did not exist, uncomment the two

local_

part_suffix options. Then, for example, xxxx-foo@your.table will be

treated # in the same way as xxxx@your.table by this router. You probably
want to make

the same change to the localuser router.

The no_verify setting means that this router is skipped when Exim is

verifying addresses. Similarly, no_expn means that this router is skipped
if

Exim is processing an EXPN command.

The check_ancestor option means that if the forward file generates an

address that is an ancestor of the current one, the current one gets #
passed on instead. This covers the case where A is aliased to B and B #
has a .forward file pointing to A.

The three transports specified at the end are those that are used when

forwarding generates a direct delivery to a file, or to a pipe, or sets #
up an auto-reply, respectively.

#userforward:

driver = redirect

check_local_user

local_part_suffix = +* : -*

local_part_suffix_optional

file = $home/.forward

allow_filter

no_verify

no_expn

check_ancestor

file_transport = address_file

pipe_transport = address_pipe

reply_transport = address_reply

This router matches local user mailboxes. If the router fails, the error

message is “Unknown user”.

If you want this router to treat local parts with suffixes introduced by

“-”

or “+” characters as if the suffixes did not exist, uncomment the two

local_

part_suffix options. Then, for example, xxxx-foo@your.table will be

treated # in the same way as xxxx@your.table by this router.

#localuser:

driver = accept

check_local_user

local_part_suffix = +* : -*

local_part_suffix_optional

transport = local_delivery

cannot_route_message = Unknown user

mysql_user:
driver = accept
condition = ${lookup mysql {SELECT home FROM table
WHERE email=’${local_part}@${table}’}}
retry_use_local_part
transport=mysql_delivery
###################################################################### #
TRANSPORTS CONFIGURATION #
###################################################################### #
ORDER DOES NOT MATTER # #
Only one appropriate transport is called for each delivery. #

A transport is used only when referenced from a router that successfully

handles an address.

begin transports

This transport is used for delivering messages over SMTP connections.

remote_smtp:
driver = smtp

This transport is used for local delivery to user mailboxes in

traditional # BSD mailbox format. By default it will be run under the uid
and gid of the # local user, and requires the sticky bit to be set on the
/var/mail directory.

Some systems use the alternative approach of running mail deliveries

under a

particular group instead of using the sticky bit. The commented options

below

show how this can be done.

#local_delivery:

driver = appendfile

file = /var/mail/$local_part

delivery_date_add

envelope_to_add

return_path_add

group = mail

mode = 0660

mysql_delivery:
driver = appendfile
maildir_format
maildir_use_size_file
delivery_date_add
envelope_to_add
return_path_add
directory =
${lookup mysql{SELECT maildir FROM table
WHERE email=’${local_part}@${table}’}}
user =
${lookup mysql{SELECT uid FROM table
WHERE email=’${local_part}@${table}’}}
group =
${lookup mysql{SELECT gid FROM table
WHERE email=’${local_part}@${table}’}}
maildir_tag = ,S=$message_size
quota_size_regex = ,S=(\d+)
quota =
${lookup mysql{SELECT quota FROM table
WHERE email=’${local_part}@${table}’}{$value}{5M}}
quota_warn_threshold = 90%

This transport is used for handling pipe deliveries generated by alias

or # .forward files. If the pipe generates any standard output, it is
returned # to the sender of the message as a delivery error. Set
return_fail_output # instead of return_output if you want this to happen
only when the pipe fails

to complete normally. You can set different transports for aliases and

forwards if you want to - see the references to address_pipe in the
routers # section above.

address_pipe:
driver = pipe
return_output

This transport is used for handling deliveries directly to files that

are # generated by aliasing or forwarding.

address_file:
driver = appendfile
delivery_date_add
envelope_to_add
return_path_add

This transport is used for handling autoreplies generated by the

filtering # option of the userforward router.

address_reply:
driver = autoreply

###################################################################### #
RETRY CONFIGURATION #

begin retry

This single retry rule applies to all tables and all errors. It

specifies # retries every 15 minutes for 2 hours, then increasing retry
intervals, # starting at 1 hour and increasing each time by a factor of
1.5, up to 16 # hours, then retries every 6 hours until 4 days have passed
since the first # failed delivery.

Address or table Error Retries

----------------- ----- -------

  •                  *           F,2h,15m; G,16h,1h,1.5; F,4d,6h
    

###################################################################### #
REWRITE CONFIGURATION #

There are no rewriting specifications in this default configuration file.

begin rewrite

###################################################################### #
AUTHENTICATION CONFIGURATION #

There are no authenticator specifications in this default configuration

file.

begin authenticators

###################################################################### #
CONFIGURATION FOR local_scan() #

If you have built Exim to include a local_scan() function that contains

tables for private options, you can define those options here. Remember

to # uncomment the “begin” line. It is commented by default because it
provokes # an error with Exim binaries that are not built with
LOCAL_SCAN_HAS_OPTIONS # set in the Local/Makefile.

begin local_scan

End of Exim configuration file

Thank You

Pamela Pomary
ICT Assistant (Network Administration)
ICT Directorate
University of Ghana
Tel:+233 244 994 020
g-mail:ppomary@gmail.com
yahoo-mail: mawua2005@yahoo.com
skype:ppomary